Rolf Sattler: Publications

New Book: Sattler, R. 2021. Science and Beyond: Toward Greater Sanity through Science, Philosophy, Art, and Spirituality. FriesenPress. Watch the Teaser Trailer.

Articles posted on Blogs and Websites

Sattler, R. July 2021. Science and the COVID-19 pandemic. Posted on Visser's Integral World.

Sattler, R. November 28, 2018.
Beyond materialist science. Posted on Visser's Integral World.

Sattler, R. February 17, 2014. Rupert Sheldrake and dogmatism in mainstream science. Posted on Visser’s Integral World.

Sattler, R. January 2014.
Ken Wilber's AQAL map and Korzybski's General Semantics. Posted on Visser's Integral World.

Sattler, R. January 2013.
Ken Wilber, humor, and laughter. Posted on Visser's Integral World.

Sattler, R. March 2011.
Healthy thinking and Ken Wilber. Posted on Visser's Integral World

Sattler, R. May 5, 2009. Perspectivism and Complementarity: AQAL, the Big Tube, and the Dynamic Mandala. Originally posted on The Scientific and Medical Network Blog.

Sattler, R. February 22, 2009. Ken Wilber, holarchy, and beyond. Posted on Integral Praxis.

Sattler, R. February 10, 2009.
The dynamic Mandala. Posted on David J. Bookbinder's Flower Mandalas, a blog about mandalas, art, healing, and transformation.

Sattler, R. March 2008.
Wilber's AQAL Map and Beyond: Summary and Conclusions. Posted on Visser's Integral World.


Sattler, R. 2021. Science and Beyond: Toward Greater Sanity through Science, Philosophy, Art and Spirituality. Friesen Press, Victoria, B. C.

Sattler, R. 2016. Wholeness, Fragmentation, and the Unnamable: Holism, Materialism, and Mysticism - A Mandala.
(published on my website)

Sattler, R. 2010.
Healing Thinking and Being.
(book manuscript published on my website)

Sattler, R. 2008. Wilber’s AQAL Map and Beyond. ( published on my website).

Sattler, R. 1986. Biophilosophy. Analytic and Holistic Perspectives. Springer-Verlag. Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo. 300 pp.

Sattler, R. (ed). 1982. Axioms and Principles of Plant Construction. Martinus Nijhoff/Junk Publ., The Hague. 186 pp. (Also published as Vol. 31a of Acta Biotheoretica).

Sattler, R. (ed). 1978. Theoretical Plant Morphology. Leiden University Press. The Hague. 142 pp.

Sattler, R. 1973. Organogenesis of Flowers. A photographic Text-Atlas. Univ. of Toronto Press. Toronto. 233 pp.

Book Chapters

Sattler, R. 2019. Structural and dynamic approaches to the development and evolution of plant form In: G. Fusco (ed.) Perspectives on Evolutionary and Developmental Biology. Essays for Alessandro Minelli. Padova University Press. Chapter 6, pp. 57-70.

Sattler, R. 1998. On the origin of symmetry, branching and phyllotaxis in land plants. In: R.V. Jean and D. Barabé (eds) Symmetry in Plants. World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 775-793.

Sattler, R. 1997. Plant morphology as applied to systematics. In: D.W. Woodland. Contemporary Plant Systematics. Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI. 2nd edition.

Sattler, R. 1994. Homology, homeosis and process morphology in plants. In: B.K. Hall (ed). Homology: The hierarchical basis of comparative biology. Academic Press, pp. 423-475.

Sattler, R. 1991. Plant Morphology as Applied to Systematics. In: D.W. Woodland. Contemporary Plant Systematics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., pp. 433-437.

Contributions to Encyclopedias

"Gottlieb Haberlandt"
In: Dictionary of Scientific Bibliography. 1972. 

In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. 1965.

Symposium Contributions

Sattler, R. 2018. Philosophy of Plant Morphology. Elemente der Naturwissenschaft 108: 55-79 (an expanded version is on this website).

Sattler, R. 2001. Some comments on the morphological, scientific, philosophical and spiritual significance of Agnes Arber's life and work. Annals of Botany 88: 1215-1217.

Sattler, R. 1993. Why do we need a more dynamic study of morphogenesis? Descriptive and comparative aspects. In: D. Barabé et R. Brunet (eds.) Morphogenèse et Dynamique. Orbis, Frelighsburg, pp. 140-152.

Sattler, R. 1992. Process morphology: structural dynamics in development and evolution. Can. J. Bot. 70: 708-714.

Sattler, R. 1990. Towards a more dynamic plant morphology. Acta Biotheor.
38: 303-315 (Abstract).

Anthony, M. and Sattler, R. 1990. Pathological ramification of leaves and the pyramid model of plant construction. Acta Biotheor.
38: 165-170.

Sattler, R. 1988. A dynamic multidimensional approach to floral morphology. In: Leins, P., Tucker, S. C, and Endress, P. (eds.) Aspects of floral Development. J. Cramer, Berlin/Stuttgart, pp. 1-6.

Sattler, R. 1986. Homöosis - eine andere Sicht der Dinge.
In: H.A. Froebe and R. Claßen (eds) Grundsatzfragen der Pflanzenmorphologie. Aachen, West Germany.

Sattler, R. 1984. Homology - a continuing challenge. Syst. Bot.
9: 382-394.

Sattler, R. 1982. Introduction: On the concepts "axiom", principle", and "plant construction".
In: R. Sattler (ed). Axioms and Principles of Plant Construction. Acta Biotheor. 31a: 5-7.

Sattler, R. 1982. Les progrès en morphologie florale. Bull. Soc. Anim. Jardin Institut Botan.
6: 49-50. (Numéro spécial en l'honneur du 50e anniversaire du jardin botanique de la ville de Montréal).

Sattler, R. 1978. What is theoretical plant morphology?
In: R. Sattler (ed). Theoretical Plant Morphology. Acta. Biotheor. 27: 5-20 (Supplement: Folia Biotheor., No. 7).

Sattler, R. 1977. Essentialism in Plant Morphology. Proceedings No. 3, XIVth International Congress of the History of Science p. 464-467. Tokyo & Kyoto, Japan.

Sattler, R. 1977. Kronröhrenentstehung bei
Solanum dulcamara L. und "kongenitale Verwachsung". Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 90: 29-38.

Articles in Non-Refereed Journals

Sattler, R. 2012. Outgrowing Aristotle: How to move beyond the logic of either/or. Green Spirit 14 (2): 18-20.

Sattler, R. 2001. Non-conventional medicines and holism. Holistic Science and Human Values 5: 1-15.

Sattler, R. 1999. Divergence and convergence of sciences and spirituality: life science and spirituality. Holistic Science and Human Values 4: 41-48.

Sattler, R. 1996. Biophilosophie. Quatre-Temps
20(4): 42-44.

Articles in Refereed Journals


Feature Paper: Sattler, R. and Rutishauser, R. 2023. Fundamentals of plant morphology and plant evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology). Plants 12(1): 118-131;, or


Sattler, R. 2022. Kaplan's Principles of Plant Morphology: A Critical Review. The Botanical Review 88: 257-270 (available as pdf:


Sattler, R. 2016. Science and Mystery. Holistic Science Journal 3 (1): 49-54.


Sattler, R. and Rutishauser, R. 1997. The fundamental relevance of plant morphology and morphogenesis to plant research. Annals of Botany 80: 571-582 (

Rutishauser, R. and Sattler, R. 1997. Expression of shoot processes in leaf development of
Polemonium caeruleum. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 119: 563-582.

Lehmann, N.L. and Sattler, R. 1997. Polyaxial development in homeotic flowers of three
Begonia cultivars. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 145-154.


Lehmann, N.L. and Sattler, R. 1996. Staminate floral development in
Begonia cucullata var. hookeri and three double-flowering Begonia cultivars. Examples of homeosis. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1729-1741.

Sattler, R. 1996. Classical morphology and continuum morphology: opposition and continuum. Annals of Botany 78: 577-581.

Jeune, B. and Sattler, R. 1996. Quelques aspects théoriques et pratiques d'une morphologie continuiste et dynamique. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1023-1039.


Lehmann, N.L. and Sattler, R. 1994. Floral development and homeosis in
Actaea rubra (Ranunculaceae). International Journal of Plant Science 155: 658-671.

Lacroix, C.R. and Sattler, R. 1994. Expression of shoot features in early leaf development of
Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 678-687.


Lehmann, N.L. and Sattler, R. 1993. Homeosis in floral development of
Sanguinaria canadensis and S. canadensis 'Multiplex' (Papaveraceae). American Journal of Botany 80: 1323-1335.


Lehmann, N.L. and Sattler, R. 1992. Irregular floral development in
Calla palustris (Araceae) and the concept of homeosis. American Journal of Botany 79: 1145-1157.

Sattler, R. and Rutishauser, R. 1992. Partial homology of pinnate leaves and shoots. Orientation of leaflet inception. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie
114: 61-79.

Sattler, R. and Jeune, B. 1992. Multivariate analysis confirms the continuum view of plant form. Annals of Botany
69: 249-262.

Jeune, B. and Sattler, R. 1992. Multivariate analysis in process morphology. Journal of Theoretical Biology
156: 147-167.


Sattler R. and Rutishauser, R. 1990. Structural and dynamic descriptions of the development of
Utricularia foliosa and U. australis. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1989-2003.


Rutishauser, R. and Sattler, R. 1989. Complementarity and heuristic value of contrasting models in structural botany. III. Case study on shoot-like "leaves" and leaf-like "shoots" in
Utricularia macrorhiza and U. purpurea (Lentibulariaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 111: 121-137.


Sattler, R. 1988. Homeosis in plants. (Special Paper) Amer. J. Bot.
75: 1606-1617.

Sattler, R., Luckert, D. and Rutishauser, R. 1988. Symmetry in plants: leaf and stipule development in
Acacia longipedunculata. Can. J. Bot. 66: 1270-1284.

Anthony, M., Westphal, E. and Sattler, R. 1988. Proliférations épiphylles provoquées par l'acarien
Eriophyes cladophtirus chez Solanum lycopersicum L. et Nicandra physaloides Gaertn. (Solanacées). Can. J. Bot. 66: 1974-1985.

Sattler, R. and Lacroix, C. 1988. Development and evolution of basal cauline placentation:
Basella rubra. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 918-927.

Lacroix, C. and Sattler, R. 1988. Phyllotaxis theories and tepal-stamen superposition in
Basella rubra. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 906-917.


Rutishauser, R. and Sattler, R. 1987. Complementarity and heuristic value of contrasting models in structural botany. II. Case study on leaf whorls:
Equisetum and Ceratophyllum. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 109: 227-255.

Cooney-Sovetts, C. and Sattler, R. 1987. Phylloclade development in the Asparagaceae: an example of homoeosis. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.
94: 327-371.


Rutishauser, R. and Sattler, R. 1986. Architecture and development of the phyllode stipule whorls in
Acacia longipedunculata: controversial interpretations and continuum approach. Can. J. Bot. 64: 1987-2019.


Dubuc-Lebreux, M.-A. and Sattler, R. 1985. Quantitative distribution of mitotic activity during early corolla development of
Nicotiana tabacum. Phytomorphology 35: 17-23.

Rutishauser, R. and Sattler, R. 1985. Complementarity and heuristic value of contrasting models in structural botany. I. General considerations. Bot. Jahrb. Syst.
107: 415-455.


Dubuc-Lebreux M.-A. and Sattler, R. 1984. Quantitative distribution of mitotic activity during early corolla development of
Solanum dulcamara L. Bot. Gazette 145: 22-25.


Anthony, M., Sattler, R. and Cooney-Sovetts, C. 1983. Morphogenetic potential of
Fraxinus ornus under the influence of the gall mite Aceria fraxinivora. Can. J. Bot. 61: 1580-1594.


Sattler, R. 1982. On theoretical plant morphology. "Journal of General Biology" (Russian Journal) (In Russian)
43: 470-479.

Sattler, R. and Perlin, L. 1982. Floral development of
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd., Boerhaavia diffusa L. and Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 161-182.

Muhammad, A.F. and Sattler, R. 1982. Vessel structure of
Gnetum and the origin of angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 69: 1004-1021.


Dubuc-Lebreux, M.-A. and Sattler, R. 1980 (issued 1981). Développement des organes foliacés chez
Nicotiana tabacum L. et le problème des méristèmes marginaux. Phytomorphology 30: 17-32.

Posluszny, U., Scott, M.G. and Sattler, R. 1980. Revisions in the technique of epi-illumination lightmicroscopy for the study of floral and vegetative apices. Can. J. Bot.
58: 2491-2495.


Pauzé, F., et Sattler, R. 1979. La placentation axillaire chez
Ochna atropurpurea DC. Can. J. Bot.57: 100-107.


Daniel, E. and Sattler, R. 1978. Development of the perianth tubes of
Solanum dulcamara: implications for comparative morphology. Phytomorphology 28: 151-171.

Sattler, R. and Singh, V. 1978. Floral organogenesis of
Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj and floral construction of the Alismatales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 77: 144-156.

Pauzé, F. et Sattler, R. 1978. L'androcée centripète
d'Ochna atropurpurea DC. Can. J. Bot. 56: 2500-2511.

Sattler, R. 1978. 'Fusion' and 'continuity' in floral morphology. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb.
36: 397-405.


Sattler, R. 1977. On "understanding" organic form. Sophia Perennis
III: 29-50.

Singh, V. and Sattler, R. 1977. Floral development of
Aponogeton natans and A. undulatus. Can. J. Bot . 55: 1106-1120.

Singh, V. and Sattler, R. 1977. Development of the inflorescence and flower of
Sagittaria cuneata. Can. J. Bot. 55: 1087-1105.

Sattler, R. and Singh, V. 1977. Floral organogenesis of
Limnocharis flava. Can. J. Bot. 55: 1076-1086.

Sattler, R. and Maier, U. 1977. Development of the epiphyllous appendages of
Begonia hispida var. cucullifera: implications for comparative morphology. Can. J. Bot. 55: 411-425.

Maier, U. and Sattler, R. 1977. The structure of the epiphyllous appendages of
Begonia hispida var. cucullifera. Can. J. Bot. 55: 264-280.


Lieu, S.M. and Sattler, R. 1976. Leaf development in
Begonia hispida var. cucullifera with special reference to vascular organization. Can. J. Bot. 54: 2108-2121.

Posluszny, U. and Sattler, R. 1976. Floral development of
Najas flexilis. Can. J. Bot. 54 (10): 1140-1151.

Posluszny, U. and Sattler, R. 1976. Floral development of
Zannichellia palustris. Can. J. Bot.54 (8): 651-662.


Dickinson, T. and Sattler, R. 1975. Development of the epiphyllous inflorescence of
Helwingia japonica (Helwingiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 62 (9): 962-973.

Sattler, R. 1975. Organverschiebungen und Heterotopien bei Blütenpflanzen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst.
95 (2): 256-266.


Dickinson, T.A. and Sattler, R. 1974. Development of the epiphyllous inflorescence of
Phyllonoma integerrima (Turcz.) Loes.: implications for comparative morphology. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 69: 1-13.

Sattler, R. 1974. A new approach to gynoecial morphology. Phytomorphology
24: 22-34. 

Sattler, R. 1974. A new conception of the shoot of higher plants. J. Theor. Biol.
47: 367-382.

Posluszny, U. and Sattler, R. 1974. Floral development of
Ruppia maritima var. maritima. Can. J. Bot.52: 1607-1612.

Singh, V. and Sattler, R. 1974. Floral development of
Butomus umbellatus. Can. J. Bot. 52: 223-230.

Posluszny, U. and Sattler, R. 1974. Floral development of
Potamogeton richardsonii. Amer. J. Bot.61: 209-216.


Sattler, R. and Singh, V. 1973. Floral development of
Hydrocleis nymphoides. Can. J. Bot. 51: 2455-2458.

Macdonald, A.D. and Sattler, R. 1973. Floral development of
Myrica gale and the controversy over floral theories. Can. J. Bot. 51: 1965-1975.

Singh V. and Sattler, R. 1973. Nonspiral androecium and gynoecium of
Sagittaria latifolia. Can. J. Bot. 51: 1093-1095.

Posluszny U. and Sattler, R. 1973. Floral development of
Potamogeton densus. Can. J. Bot. 51: 647-656.


Sattler, R. 1972. Centrifugal primordial inception in floral development. Advances in Plant Morphology, pp. 170-176.

Leins P., Merxmüller, H. and Sattler, R. 1972. Zur Terminologie interkalarer Becherbildungen in Blüten. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges.
85: 294.

Singh, V. and Sattler, R. 1972. Floral development of
Alisma trivale. Can. J. Bot. 50: 619-627.


Sattler, R. 1971. Ein neues Sproß-Modell. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges.
84: 139.


Sattler, R. 1968. A technique for the study of floral development. Can. J. Bot.
46: 720-722.

Sattler, R. and Gifford, E.M. 1968. Ontogenetic and histochemical changes in the shoot tip of
Najas guadalupensis. Maheshwari Memorial Vol., Phytomorphology 17: 419-428.


Sattler, R. 1967. Petal inception and the problem of pattern detection. J. Theoret. Biol.
17: 31-39.

Cheung, M. and Sattler, R. 1967. Early floral development of
Lythrum salicaria. Can. J. Bot. 45: 1609-1618.


Sattler, R. 1966. Towards a more adequate approach to comparative morphology. Phytomorphology
16: 417-429.


Sattler, R. 1965. Perianth development in
Potamogeton richardsonii. Amer. J. Bot. 52: 35-41.


Sattler, R. 1964. Numerische Taxonomie. Zeitschr. f. Botanik
51: 340-347.

Sattler, R. 1964. Methodological problems in taxonomy. Syst. Zool.
13: 19-27.


Sattler, R. 1963. Phenetic contra phyletic systems. Syst. Zool. 1: 94-95.


Sattler, R. 1962. Zur frühen Infloreszenz- und Blütenentwicklung der Primulales sensu lato mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Stamen-Petalum-Entwicklung. Bot. Jahrb.
81: 358-396.

Special Interest Group Report

Posluszny, U., Sattler, R., Hill, J.P., Komaki, M.K., Gerath, J.M., Lehmann, N., and Kirchoff, B.K. 1991. Homeosis and the evolution of plants. In: E.C. Dudley (ed). The Unity of Evolutionary Biology. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Syst. Evol. Biol. Vol. 1, pp. 447-454. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.

Reviews: Books and Papers

Holdrege, C. 1996. Genetics and the manipulation of life. The forgotten factor of context. - CBA/ABC Bulletin
29(4): 59-60, 1996.

Bell, A.D. 1991. Plant form. An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. - Taxon
40: 534-535, 1991.

Hull, D.L. 1988. Science as a process. - Taxon
39: 257-258, 1990.

Delbrück, Max. 1986. Mind from matter? - Taxon
36: 529-530, 1987.

Bernier, Réjane. 1975. Aux sources de la biologie. Tome l: les vingt premiers siècles. La classification. - Isis
68: 226-227, 1977.

Ayala, F.J. and Dobzhansky, T. (eds.) 1974. Studies in the philosophy of biology. Reduction and related problems. - Syst. Bot.
1: 197-198, 1976.

Dagognet, F. 1970. Le catalogue de la vie. Etude méthodologique sur la taxonomie. - Isis
62: 537, 1971.

Reviews of 40 papers in "Berichte der Wissenschaftlichen Biologie" (1963-1966).

Publications by postdoctoral fellows and students of work partially or totally carried out in my laboratory

Jeune, B. and Lacroix, C. 1993. A quantitative model of leaflet initiation illustrated by
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Rutaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 457-465.

Drinnan, A.N. and Ladiges, P.Y. 1988. Perianth development in
Angophora and the bloodwood Eucalypts (Myrtaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 160: 219-239.

Rutishauser, R. 1984. Blattquirle, Stipeln und Kolleteren bei den Rubieae und andern Rubiaceae. Beitr. Biol. Pflanz.
59: 375-424.

Lieu, S.M. 1979. Organogenesis in
Triglochin striata. Can. J. Bot. 57: 1418-1438.

Lieu, S.M. 1979. Growth forms in the Alismatales. I.
Alisma triviale and species of Sagittaria with upright vegetative axes. Can. J. Bot. 57: 2325-2352.

Lieu, S.M. 1979. Growth forms in the Alismatales II. Two rhizomatous species
Sagittaria lancifolia and Butomus umbellatus. Can. J. Bot. 57: 2353-2373.

Dickinson, T.A. 1978. Epiphylly in Angiosperms. Bot. Rev.
44: 181-232.

Meyer, R.W. and Muhammad, A.F. 1971. Scalariform perforation-plate fine structure. Wood and Fiber
3: 139-145.

For a short description of some of my major plant morphological publications see The Evolution of my Phytomorphological Research in my Publications and Plant Evo-Devo (Evolutionary Developmental Biology).